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Setting up Open-Air-Interface Kernels

HOW-TO create a 2.6.20 SMP kernel with RTAI3.5-cv from scratch

Based on :

  • Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake) Operating System
  • Default GCC version (4.0.3)
Informations :
  • In this paper, each line starting by "-" is a command to be executed inside a terminal

Introduction

#Some tools are required in order to set up the kernel (You need to be connected to Internet)
- apt-get install build-essential qt3-apps-dev qt3-dev-tools

#All following commands have to be executed as Root user

I - Source downloads

- cd /opt
#Get the 2.6.20 kernel source
- wget ftp://ftp.eu.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/v2.6/linux-2.6.20.tar.bz2
#Get the RTAI 3.5-cv source
- wget https://www.rtai.org/RTAI/rtai-3.5-cv.tar.bz2
#Get the BIGPHYSAREA 2.6.20 patch (You can find it attached at the bottom of the page)
- cp /usr/sradio/SOFTWARE/KERNEL/bigphysarea-for-2.6.18-and-2.6.20-kernels/bigphysarea-2.6.20.1.patch . #Get the Patch for 2620 OpenAirInterface ARP code (You can find it attached at the bottom of the page)

II - Kernel Preparation

# We place sources in /usr/src
- cd /opt
- cp linux-2.6.20.tar.bz2 rtai-3.5-cv.tar.bz2 bigphysarea-2.6.20.1.patch /usr/src
- cd /usr/src/

# Source preparation
- tar xjvf linux-2.6.20.tar.bz2
- tar xjvf rtai3.5-cv.tar.bz2
- rm linux
- ln -s linux-2.6.20 linux
- cd linux
# RTAI patch
# If you want first to simulate the patch application, use "--dry-run" between "-p1" and "-b"
- patch -p1 -b <../rtai-3.5-cv/base/arch/i386/patches/hal-linux-2.6.20-i386-1.8-04.patch
# No Hunks should appear

Patch
- patch -p1 -b <../bigphysarea-2.6.20.1.patch
# No Hunks should appear

2620 ARP code patch
- patch -p1 -b <../driveropenair2620.patch
# No Hunks should appear

# We configure the kernel
- make oldconfig
- make xconfig

  • General Setup
    • Kernel .config Support -> ENABLE
      • Enable access to .config through /proc/config.gz -> ENABLE
    • Loadable Module Support
      • Module Versioning Support -> DISABLE
  • Processor type and features
    • Processor family -> SELECT YOURS
    • Symmetric multi-processing support -> ENABLE
    • Interrupt Pipeline -> ENABLE
    • Maximum number of CPUs -> MATCH YOUR CONFIG
    • SMT Scheduler Support -> DISABLE
    • Multi-Core Scheduler Support -> DISABLE
    • User Register Arguments -> DISABLE
    • Support for Bigphysarea -> ENABLE
    • Support for Hot-pluggable CPUs -> DISABLE
  • Power Management options (ACPI, APM)
    • Power Management Support -> ENABLE
    • All features underneath -> DISABLE
    • ACPI Support
      • ACPI Support -> ENABLE
      • All features underneath -> DISABLE
    • APM NIOS Support -> DISABLE ALL
    • CPU Frequency scalling -> Let by default
  • Bus Options (PCI, PCMCIA, EISA, MCA, ISA)
    • PCCARD (PCMCIA/CardBus) Support -> All "bridge support" in MODULE
  • Device Drivers
    • Graphics Support
      • VESA VGA Grapphics Support -> ENABLE
  • Networking
    • Networking Support
      • Networking options
        • Ipsec User Configuration Interface -> ENABLE
        • PF_KEY socket -> ENABLE
# Save and Quit

#Edit the "Makefile" and update the "EXTRAVERSION" field
- vi Makefile
#Update the following field -> "EXTRAVERSION = .openairinterface"

#Set kernel maintainer informations (optional)
- vi /etc/kernel-pkg.conf
# Update fields : "maintainer" and "email"

III - Kernel Compilation

- make && make modules_install && make_install (~1 hour)
- mkinitramfs -o /boot/initrd.img-2.6.20.openairinterface 2.6.20.openairinterface
- update-grub

#We place all kernel modules at the same place so we can use modprobe command
- cp -r /usr/src/linux/modules/* /lib/modules/2.6.20.openairinterface/
- depmod -a

# If you want to be sure that your new kernel will be the default one
- vi /boot/grub/menu.lst
#Look for "default" number at the beginning of this file and memorize it
#Check at the end of the file that your kernel entry matches this "default" number

# For your kernel entry paragraph, at the end of the "kernel" line, do not forget to replace "quiet splash" by "bigphysarea=2048"
# OPTIONAL - Just after "bigphysarea=2048" on the same line you can add "vga=792" in order to have informations about the boot and shutting down sessions

#save and quit
- reboot

IV - RTAI installation

#Make sure you booted on your new kernel
- uname -a

#We start to configure RTAI
- cd /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv
- make xconfig

  • Machine (x86) -> UPDATE the CPUs number according to your configuration
#Save and quit. If any error occurs here, solve it and repeat this "make xconfig" step until it's OK
- make && make install && make dev

#Avoid loss of "dev" at each reboot
cp makeRTF.sh /etc/init.d/ ## File available at the bottom of the page
chmod 755 /etc/init.d/makeRTF.sh
ln -s /etc/init.d/makeRTF.sh /etc/rc2.d/S99makeRTF

#We will test the RTAI system via the latency test
- cd /usr/realtime/testsuite/kern/latency
- ./run

#You should have absolutely no overrun and the "lat-max" column values should not exceed 40 000us
#If not go to paragraph V, otherwise the kernel setup has been successfully achieved

V - RTAI: High latencies with SMI not disabled

#If you had bad results before, you need to disable SMI (System Maintenance Interrupt) which is a real-time killer largely spread on motherboard with Intel chipsets.
#For that, you should edit /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv/base/arch/i386/calibration/smi-module.c
- vi /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv/base/arch/i386/calibration/smi-module.c

  • "int smiReset" should be equals to 1
  • "#define CONFIG_RTAI_HW_SMI_ALL" should be set to 1
#Save and quit
- cd /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv
- make && make install
- insmod /usr/realtime/modules/rtai-smi.ko

#We repeat the latency test
- cd /usr/realtime/testsuite/kern/latency
- ./run
#You should have absolutely no overrun and the "lat-max" column values should not exceed 40 000us

#If you still face problem with this test, it means that the module rtai-smi.ko doesn't know how to disable SMI for your Hardware
#You have to identify the Intel chipset you're using (We are not really sure about that yet, but we found out that it is working for us) #Execute in a terminal what follows
- lspci -nv | grep 00:1f.0 | cut -d ' ' -f 3 | cut -d ':' -f 2 > my_hw
- for i in `cat my_hw`; do cat /usr/include/linux/pci_ids.h | grep 0x$i | cut -d ' ' -f 2 | cut -f1; done
#Copy the result

#Then, we update RTAI sources
- vim /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv/base/arch/i386/calibration/smi-module.c
#look for this line -> "{ PCI_DEVICE(PCI_VENDOR_ID_INTEL, PCI_DEVICE_ID_INTEL_ICH7_1) },"
#and just after, add "{ PCI_DEVICE(PCI_VENDOR_ID_INTEL, XXXXXXXXX) }," with XXXXXXXXX = what you copied above
#Save and quit
- cd /usr/src/rtai-3.5-cv
- make install
- insmod /usr/realtime/modules/rtai-smi.ko

#If you type the command 'dmesg' in a new terminal, you should see now:
RTAI: Intel chipset found, enabling SMI workaround.
SMI module loaded

#We repeat the latency test
- cd /usr/realtime/testsuite/kern/latency
- ./run
#You should have absolutely no overrun and the "lat-max" column values should not exceed 40 000us

-- User.PhilippeFoubert - 10 Dec 2007

Topic attachments
I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
Unknown file formatpatch bigphysarea-2.6.20.1.patch manage 19.4 K 04 Feb 2008 - 13:55 PhilippeFoubert Bigphysarea 2.6.20.1 patch
Unknown file formatpatch driveropenair2615.patch manage 2.4 K 13 Mar 2008 - 16:32 RaymondKnopp 2.6.15 patch for OpenAirInterface ARP code
Unknown file formatpatch driveropenair2620.patch manage 1.6 K 13 Mar 2008 - 16:33 RaymondKnopp 2.6.20 patch for OpenAirInterface ARP Code
Unix shell scriptsh makeRTF.sh manage 0.1 K 07 Feb 2008 - 15:35 PhilippeFoubert Used to populate /dev for RTAI
Topic revision: r13 - 13 Mar 2008 - PhilippeFoubert
 
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